Afghanistan, as a country in transition, faced many challenges, among which is the protection and promotion of human rights. Transitional justice was still a major issue, like corruption, poverty and (inter)national violence. Nevertheless, the Afghans took pride in their parliamentary democracy, improved education (especially for girls), health services, freedom of expression and the diversity of political parties and civil society. CILC has assisted the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan in compiling the national report (UPR) on the human rights situation and its presentation at the Human Rights Council in Geneva. In the process CILC had the opportunity to participate in open-minded debates with representatives of governmental and non-governmental organizations. This was reflected in the quality, balance and completeness of the report, the substantial debate in the Human Rights Council on Refugees in Geneva and its recommendations and – hopefully – progress in this important area in the future.